The Delhi Agreement of Nepal, also known as the Nepal-India Treaty of Peace and Friendship, was signed between Nepal and India on July 31, 1950. The agreement is considered significant in the history of Nepal because it marked a turning point in the country`s foreign relations. In this article, we will discuss what the Delhi Agreement of Nepal is, its background, and its key provisions.


Before we delve into the agreement`s details, let`s first understand the background that led to the signing of this treaty. Nepal, a small Himalayan country, had always been a buffer state between the British and Chinese empires, and it had maintained its sovereignty by following a policy of isolationism. However, after India gained independence in 1947, it sought to establish its leadership in the region, which affected Nepal`s foreign relations. Nepal`s Prime Minister, Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana, realized that he needed to establish diplomatic ties with India to secure Nepal`s independence and modernize the country.

Key Provisions

The Delhi Agreement of Nepal has several key provisions that are worth noting. These include:

1. Friendship and Cooperation: The agreement established a framework of friendship and cooperation between Nepal and India. The two countries pledged to respect each other`s territorial integrity, refrain from interfering in each other`s internal affairs, and provide mutual support in times of need.

2. Security: The agreement provided for India`s assistance in Nepal`s defense and security. Both countries agreed to collaborate on security matters and prevent their territories from being used for activities that threatened each other`s security.

3. Trade: The agreement facilitated free trade and movement of goods between Nepal and India. It allowed Nepali goods to enter the Indian market duty-free and provided for the establishment of joint industrial ventures.

4. People-to-People Contact: The agreement encouraged people-to-people contact between Nepal and India. It allowed for the free movement of Nepali and Indian citizens across the border without the need for visas.


The Delhi Agreement of Nepal is a significant treaty that marked a significant shift in Nepal`s foreign policy. It helped Nepal establish diplomatic ties with India and secure its independence. The agreement`s provisions facilitated trade, security, and people-to-people contact between the two countries, and they continue to shape their relationship to this day.

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